Friday, February 7, 2020

Planning and management of public relation campaigns Essay - 1

Planning and management of public relation campaigns - Essay Example Third, the Chartered Institute of Public Relations (CIPR) defined â€Å"public relations [as] about reputation† and â€Å"the planned and sustained effort to establish and maintain goodwill and mutual understanding between an organization and its publics† (Langley, 2009). The roles of public relations practitioners are diverse, depending on the size, nature, and aims of their organizations. Their roles can include, but not limited to, the following: (1) cause or relationship marketing- creating and preserving relationships to build customer loyalty; (2) communication- sharing ideas, messages, or opinions through verbal/nonverbal/oral expressions; (3) community relations- build relationships between/among organizations that impact one another; (4) crisis management- responding to different kinds of crises and maximizing potentially positive outcomes; (5) integrated marketing communication (IMC)- merging PR, marketing, and advertising to attain a uniform marketing approach; (6) issues management- identifying organizational issues and responding to them; and (7) media relations- creating relationships between media and the organization (Johnston & Zawawi, 2014). The goal of this paper is to describe how a PR campaign is planned and managed in general ac ross different organizations and sectors. The purpose of planning PR campaigns is to attain order and some control and predictability over them (Gregory, 2010). Planning provides a sense of direction, clarification of important aims and goals, and ability to manage objectives, as well as processes and outcomes (Austin & Pinkleton, 2015). In addition, public relations must function to support and align itself with organizational vision, mission, and goals (Gregory, 2010). Strategic planning improves the ability of PR to determine PR’s contribution to the company, the processes and steps involved to attain aims and objectives, and metrics and standards for evaluation (Gregory, 2010). Planning refers to analyzing

Wednesday, January 29, 2020

Naturalism in Theatre in the 19th Century Essay Example for Free

Naturalism in Theatre in the 19th Century Essay Naturalism in theatre in the 19th century, in its utmost simplest form, can be understood as the life like reproduction of life and human drama on stage. However the true understanding of naturalism is far more convoluted than this shallow notion. This essay will look at explaining and defining naturalism as a literature movement in the 19th century according to Emile Zola’s essay, Naturalism in the Theatre and Raymond Williams’ essay on Social Environment and Theatrical Environment. One way in which we may acquire a better understanding of naturalism is by comparing the other forms of theater that were precursors to naturalism. In the beginning of his essay Zola calls for an innovator’s mind to â€Å"†¦overthrow the accepted conventions and finally install the real human drama in place of the ridiculous untruths that are on display today† (Zola 1881; 351). This statement outlines the fundamentals of Romantic drama and Classical drama as being based on a grotesque exaggeration of reality and falsification of human drama. Often set in the Middle Ages (Classicism) or the Greek and Roman times (Romanticism) action was always of excess (Zola 1881; 353). If we compare this to 19th century naturalism the differences are major. Firstly we see that naturalism brought about the life like reproduction of human drama in the, then, present time, it sought realistic human stories, in real human environments. As Zola stated â€Å"Take our present environment, then, and try make men live in it: you will write great works†, here Zola expresses the basis for naturalism, real people in real situations in real environments. As this illustrates Naturalism was not concerned with fantastic untruths of another era as Romanticism and Classicism were, but was rather involved with the expression of the realistic drama of present life in a natural present environment. Williams’s classification of naturalism is divided into three ‘senses’. The first being an accurate reproduction of real life in the literal sense, this was school of thought was inherited from the naturalistic landscape paintings of the mid 1800’s, that sought to reproduce nature as accurately as possible on canvas. The second sense that Williams talks of is the distinction â€Å"between revealed (divine) and observed (human) knowledge† (Williams 1990; 125). This philosophical position viewed man as a biological element of the world as opposed to a divine metaphysical being of the universe. Naturalism in this sense was â€Å"consciously opposed to ‘supernaturalism’† (Williams 1990; 126). In the third sense Williams is more application specific, as he states that with in a play or novel it is the amalgamation of the first two senses that is â€Å"a conscious reliance on observed natural history and on human reason† (Williams 1990: 127). This expresses the urge of naturalism to rigorously investigate human nature and truth, not only in a temporal term but to â€Å"show character and action as determined or profoundly influenced by environment, either natural or social† (Williams 1990; 127). This illustrates how Williams has explained naturalism in three separate senses. [497] Determinism The Oxford Dictionary explains determinism as the belief that all events, and actions are fundamentally controlled by external causes, it suggests that humans have no free will as everything is pre-determined by the environment in which they live. As Williams points out â€Å"the novelty of the naturalist emphasis was its demonstration of the production of character or action by a powerful natural or social environment† (Williams 1990; 127). Here Williams is outlining the factor of influence, of the environment on the character or action. Naturalism as we have discussed, is concerned with the life like reproduction of life itself here Zola discusses the importance of reproduction by stating â€Å"most of all we would need to intensify the illusion in reconstructing environments, less for their picturesque quality than for dramatic utility. The environment must determine the character† (Zola 1881; 369). As this suggests, naturalism, particularly in written plays, will create the belief that the character has a predetermined outcome. As we have discussed in the second sense of Williams definitions of naturalism, the physiological man is preferred over the metaphysical view. This suggests that man is just apart of the environment in which he lives and, as a biological element, has no free will over his actions or environment. As Zola concurs â€Å"the physiological man in our modern works is asking more and more compellingly to be determined by his setting, by the environment that produced him† (Zola 1881; 370). As this illustrates, the notion of determinism in dramatic writing, especially naturalism is a vital one, as it’s study of human behavior, and what influences it in a given environment is crucial to the natural expression and form of a character. [291] The contemporary environment and its physical reproduction on stage The contemporary environment and its physical reproduction on stage is a vital facet in the workings of naturalism. Referring to Williams’ aspects of naturalism, the first being derived from the naturalistic painters of the mid 1800’s where replication of the environment was partially a scientific endeavor. Studying the surroundings and environment in exact detail is vital in understanding the action of a character, therefore in naturalism the lifelike reproduction of the characters environment on stage is essential (Williams 1990; 125). Here Williams states a ‘major feature’ of â€Å"naturalist drama in particular its specific central feature of the stage as a room† (Williams 1990; 129). This refers to the appearance of the stage as a physical extension of real present day life as it were, to supplement the feel of naturalism on stage. Here Zola agrees by stating â€Å"most of all we would need to intensify the illusion in reconstructing environments, less for their picturesque quality than for dramatic utility† (Zola 1881; 369). As this proves the aesthetical reproduction of life on stage is far more than a scenic attraction, it provides the environment in which the characters live and take influence. The second sense of naturalism that Williams describes is that of the physiological man opposed to the metaphysical man. This is an important factor as this philosophical position looks at the man as being apart of his surroundings in a biological sense. As Williams states â€Å"in the social sense that character is determined or profoundly influenced by its social environment, with the later and more penetrating observation that this social environment is itself historically produced, and in the wider sense of natural history, in the evolution of human nature itself within a natural world of which it is an interacting part† (Williams 1990; 127). Here Williams is stating that the character is impacted by his environment, that itself is historically produced. As Zola states that the physiological man in naturalism is requesting to be â€Å"determined by his setting, by the environment that produced him† (Zola 1881; 370). Zola does not take it as far as Williams as he does not state the environment itself as being historically produced, however it is agreed that they both see the physiological man being produced by his environment. This proves that the contemporary setting of a character is vital in naturalism as it illustrates the physiological man in his environment, as opposed to the metaphysical man in a distance time and place that has little relevance to mans contemporary intelligence. By utilizing two of Williams ‘senses’ of naturalism, we have seen the uses of the contemporary environment in which a character is places as well as the importance of the detailed physical reproduction of a characters environment. [458]

Tuesday, January 21, 2020

Comparing Peter Tosh and Malcolm X :: Civil Rights Racism Malcolm X Peter Tosh Essays

Comparing Peter Tosh and Malcolm X Introduction: Who Were These Men? Maya Angelou, a contemporary author and poet, once asserted,"No man can know where he is going unless he knows exactly where he has been and exactly how he arrived at his present place."It is this quote that serves as the underlying principle in an effort to demonstrate the commonalities that tie Peter Tosh and Malcolm X together by a similar history of slavery. No other quote is more fitting to exemplify how Peter Tosh and Malcolm X came to understand themselves and their relation to the rest of mankind. Maya Angelou's statement epitomized their goals, personalities, and the sentiment that Peter Tosh and Malcolm X tried to instill in all oppressed people. At the very least, their legacies have reminded all persecuted people to stand up, fight, and let the glory of each individual shine. This was their message. Both of these individuals knew exactly what they were creating through their respective songs, speeches, and interviews: severe discomfort for"Babylon", or tile oppressive white establishment."Babylon,"to Peter, referred to the corrupt Western society that exploited the rest of the world through hundreds of years of capitalism and imperialism (/ / 3mill.bitshop.com/ MiddlePassage / origins.htm). Malcolm held the same position (Malcolm X and Haley, 1964). For their efforts in trying to revolutionize the black man's position in this world, these martyrs lived with harassment, violence, and an"unnatural mystic"of eminent death. But this did not deter the conscience of these soldiers of justice. Malcolm X even went so far as to blatantly state:"It is time for martyrs now, and if I am to be one, it will be for the cause of brotherhood. That's the only thing that can save this country." Though Malcolm in this statement referred to saving his"country,"it soon became apparent that he was also referring to the entire world. For Peter Tosh and Malcolm X, the means to finding a better place for blacks could never come from one country. If significant change was to result, all black people had to unite, regardless of nationality or religion. The only concern for these men was to attain a better dominion for blacks. Both individuals felt this cause was worth more than their lives. With these beliefs in hand and heart, they devoted their existence to one purpose: ending the hypocrisy where all black men and women fell prey to a"slavish mentality." The black man's reasoning needed to be slaughtered if he ever was to be considered an equal.

Monday, January 13, 2020

Trade vs. Protectionism

Arjan Chhatwal Poli 305/4 ID: 6178332 International Political Economy Prof. E. Bloodgood Trade vs. Protectionism Trade between countries has been going on for centuries. Movement of goods and services began as a mean for nations to obtain what they couldn’t produce themselves.With the introduction of Ricardo’s â€Å"comparative advantage† – which illustrated how all countries that participate in trade benefit from it-, trade began to focus on what a country is better at producing a product or a service and which country can produce it at a lower cost. Nowadays, developed countries and international organization promote free trade, open borders, and liberalization of the market intensively. However, many of those core countries also practice protectionism in order to shield their industry from foreign competition.This poses a great problem to developing countries which are forced by core countries to practice free trade but would actually benefit from prote ctionist measures. In order to represent this situation, I will analyze the economic situation of two countries with very different economies: Pakistan, representing the developing countries and the United States, which represent the developed countries. I will compare their economic situation and policies under the Bush administration and Musharaf’s government.In this essay, I will demonstrate that our international economic system is very hypocritical in the sense that the countries that would benefit from and help other countries by practicing free trade are practicing protectionism, and those who would benefit from protectionism are forced to implement free trade policies. First, I will observe and describe those two main economic policies: protectionism and free trade.Then I will concentrate on the economic situation in Pakistan and the United States in order to illustrate what use countries are making of free trade and protectionism and, on the other hand, what face the y are showing to the world. Free Trade: A Market Model of Deregulation Free trade is a market model which promotes trade liberalization by the reduction of trade barriers. This model was promoted by the economist David Ricardo in the late 18th century and beginning of the 19th century. He coined the â€Å"comparative advantage† theory. Comparative advantage† is a theory that promotes free trade by demonstrating how trade between countries benefits all parties because of the different opportunity costs. Every country can produce a good at a cheaper price than another country and has to focus on producing and exporting that particular good. If all countries do so and specialize in the production of the good that is cheaper to produce in their country, they can trade those products with each other at lower costs than if they produced all of the goods themselves.Practicing free trade means the abandonment of government restrictions in the flow of goods, workers and services across borders. Those restrictions include taxes, quotas, tariffs, and subsidies. This economic model is based on deregulation and on the elimination of binding rules on corporations. Free trade also prohibits government to give financial advantages to businesses through tax cuts in order to make them more competitive against foreign industries. This results in the elimination of monopolies and oligopolies in countries by allowing full competition.However, negative outcomes of economic deregulation includes less respect and commitment to health, labor, and environmental laws and can help multinationals outcompete smaller local industries. Another important aspect of the free trading model is the principle of Most Favored Nation which basically requires all members of trading agreements to treat other members equally. Nowadays, the biggest promoter of Free Trade is the World Trade Organization, which claims that removing trade barriers would lead to the end of poverty around the wor ld.The WTO argues that in opposition to free trade, protectionism doesn’t help promoting economic expansion. Free trade policies, it is argued by the WTO and major developed countries, promote growth. The free trade model is used by the WTO to rescue developing countries and help them develop economically more efficiently. This means that in order to receive money from the WTO, developing countries are required to follow â€Å"adjustment policies†, also know as â€Å"structural adjustments†. Those policies all push towards economic liberalization.They include cutting back on social spending, devaluation of the currency, trade liberalization, removing price control and subsidies and privatization, better governance and elimination of corruption. The WTO argues that the benefits that the countries will get from free trade outweigh those costs, which include poverty and environmental costs just to name a few. The WTO actually admits that in the short-term, free tra de will lead to inequalities but in the end, the wealth accumulated by the big businesses will trickle down and most people will benefit from the free trade model.However, as J. W. Smith argues: â€Å"That current free trade is just as unequal as the mercantilist trade it replaced is easily demonstrated. The structural adjustments imposed upon weak nations as necessary for free trade are the opposite policies under which every successful nation developed. That they developed under the philosophies of Adam Smith is a myth designed to hide a continuation of plunder through unequal trades. †[1] The paradox here is that, more and more, the developed countries who promote free trade actually practice protectionism.The problem is that free trade can only lead to fair trade if every country practices it, especially core countries that have the means to practice free trade. Nowadays, however, developed countries promote free trade and force developing countries to practice it but the y themselves hypocritically practice protectionism. This penalizes poor countries who are not ready for the global market yet. It is also often noted that even if poor countries practice free trade, it won’t necessary lead to major successes.It obviously results in higher income but social inequalities remain in most cases. This can be called â€Å"Growth without social development†, and free trade is obviously not solving this tendency. Protectionism: A Regulatory Economic Policy Protectionism is an economic policy which restricts trade between countries by imposing economic barriers and policies. We usually tend to believe that protectionism is only a question of tariffs. However, government do have ccess to many other tools to protect their industries, including quotas, government regulations such as anti-dumping laws to protect domestic industries from competition of foreign enterprises, trade restrictions and exchange rate manipulation. Those policies make the pro duction of goods cheaper for the industry that is granted the money or the preferential treatment. Domestic industries can therefore sell their product outside of the country for cheaper. In that perspective, pprotectionism is an isolationist doctrine which, some argue, leads to unfair competition.The main goal of protectionism is to handicap foreign industry. This economic model is associated with neo-mercantilism, which main objective is to maintain a positive trade balance. Protectionism is often practiced by countries that seem to be free-traders, such as the United States and the UK, in order to protect their favorite or influential industries. â€Å"Rich countries’ protectionism† includes subsidies to local industries such as agriculture and textiles.Core countries have the funds to practice that kind of protectionism while developing countries that would actually benefit from protectionism are asked to deregulate their economy. â€Å"UNCTAD estimated that rolli ng back [rich country] protectionism in this area could create additional export earnings of up to $700 billion for developing countries, to be realizable over a 10-year period. This is less than 5 per cent of the combined GDP of industrial countries, but could absorb an important part of unemployed labour in the South and generate a vent for surplus†[2].It is often argued that developed countries are taking away from developing countries what helped them develop their own economy: protectionism policies. Protectionism is necessary to economic development in the sense that it helps build a strong foundation for a strong economy. Protectionism is essential for any developing countries to help their infant industries develop; become mature and competitive for the international market.It is hard for countries to enter market if they are forced to practice free trade; they may need help of protectionism policies in order to protect their infant new industries. The United Statesâ⠂¬â„¢ economy is a perfect example of what â€Å"rich countries’ protectionism† is. By examining its situation, it is easy to understand how developed countries show the face of a free trading nation but practice protectionism interiorly. The United States: The Face of a Free Trading Nation?The United States have always been a model of a Free Trade economy and have always promoted economic liberalization all around the world. When we observe the country’s practices and economic policies from the outside, it is clear that the USA is a firm believer in free trade. Indeed, the country is involved in many free trade agreements all around the world. Those include Free Trade agreements with Australia (2004), CAFTA-DR (2005), with numerous Latin American countries such as Chile (2004) and Columbia (2006), without forgetting NAFTA (1994).United States take great pride in its participation in international trade and promoting free trade between countries. Presently, inte rnational trade is primordial to the economy of the country and accounts for around a quarter of the USA’s GDP as it was mentioned by the Conference on a New Architecture for the U. S. National Accounts in 2004. Governmental economists all agree that Free trade agreements are necessary in order to promote rapid economic growth by increasing competition, cooperation between countries, and specialization.The United States follows Germany as the second most economically open country in the world. Inside a Free Trading Nation: A Hidden Protectionist Economy The United States takes good pride in proclaiming themselves as a non-discriminatory economy and a promoter of open global markets. While USA gives the image to the world of being a pure liberal economy, the country practices protectionism regularly, which shocks many trading partners and developing countries. This can be called the problem of the â€Å"Double Standard†.Rich countries promote the free trade ideology but in practice, they protect their own industry. This situation of double standard and of the USA promoting free trade but practicing protectionism was explained by the eleventh president of the World Bank, Robert Zoellick: â€Å"In order to promote free trade, the US has to manage the home front and the international front. And on the home front the only way that we can continue to get support from the American people for open markets and trade is to use our domestic and international laws to the fullest. †[3]For a society that calls itself a free-trading one, it is quite ironical and even hypocrite that, in 2002, Bush announced the imposition of new tariffs on several influential industries such as the steel industry and the agricultural sector. While developing countries, in order to please foreign investors and international economic agencies, keep on lowering their trade barriers, the USA has, over the last two years, increased its subsidies to farmers, raised tariffs on s teel imports, and still hasn’t agreed to sign the WTO agreement to the patent rights of its pharmaceutical companies.Since the election of George W. Bush, the economy of the United States has proven to be quite protectionist: â€Å"The steel tariff and the farm bill attracted the most attention, but they are part of a broader picture that includes the punitive (and almost completely unjustified) tariff on Canadian softwood lumber and the revocation of Caribbean trade privileges. When it comes to free trade, the Bush administration is all for it — unless there is some political cost, however small, to honoring its alleged principles†[4]Let us examine more in details the three most important policies of the last decade that can help us understand how the United States is giving an image of a free-trade economy but is actually practicing protectionism. The first and very striking example of this protectionism is the Bush administration deciding to protect its steel industry which has been facing very important economic problems because of the European Union competition. The second example would be the case of the automobile industry. The Japanese automobile industry has always been a strong competitor for the USA industry.This is why the United States imposed, from â€Å"In May 1981, with the American auto industry mired in recession, Japanese car makers agreed to limit exports of passenger cars to the United States. This â€Å"voluntary export restraint† (VER) program, initially supported by the Reagan administration, allowed only 1. 68 million Japanese cars into the U. S. each year. The cap was raised to 1. 85 million cars in 1984, and to 2. 30 million in 1985, before the program was terminated in 1994. †[5] The Farm Bill of 2002 also reflects very well the protectionist tendencies of the country.This Bill distributed more than $190 billion to USA farmers and agriculture businesses around the country, and this over the next 10 years. This Bill was passed in order to help the agricultural sector overcome the difficulties it faced due to international competition. Those subsidies will make it harder for foreign producers to compete against the agricultural industry: â€Å"Third World producers will find it harder to sell to the US market and, since the USA exports 25 per cent of its farm production, they will find it harder to sell in other international markets or to resist competition from US products in their home markets.The disposal of increased US surpluses as ‘food aid' is likely to compound the loss of livelihoods. †[6] While rich countries such as the United States can afford to practice protectionism, developing nations are forced to open their economy to free trade. Pakistan, the second country we will analyze in this essay is the perfect example of a country that would benefit from protectionism policies but is forced to liberalize their economy in order to receive funds from the W TO.The United States and Pakistan have been interacting on the international scene since the late 1950s, soon after Pakistan’s independence. This relationship has been successful but has also suffered from intermittent political conflicts, which reflects pretty well the complexity of the geopolitics of South East Asian region. After the events of September 11, Pakistan and the United States became even closer than before because the Bush administration relied on the help of Musharraf’s military dictatorship to eliminate terrorism in the region, mainly in Afghanistan which has a common border with Pakistan.The main difference between the United States during its early stage of development (1880s) and Pakistan’s development phase (late 1990s, 21st century) is that the United States weren’t dominated and repressed economically by major powers and international trade organization such as the IMF and the WTO, imposing economic liberalization and tariff limits on them. The United States weren’t subject to neo-colonialism like Pakistan is today. Protectionism in Pakistan: A Focus on the Textile Industry South Asia has long been seen as one of the most protectionist region in the world.As the World Bank states in the calculations of the GDP growth rates in the World Development Indicators, trade within the region accounts for less than 2% of the GDP which is minimal compared to 20% in East Asia. The region lacks diversity within the market and the products that are traded. In addition, most countries of the region, including Pakistan, still used up until recently import-substitution policies which limited trade possibilities within the region and outside the region. Trade was also hampered by political tensions, especially between India and Pakistan.Protectionism is Pakistan is mostly directed towards one of the most important industry in the country: the textile industry which accounts for more than 60% of the country’s expor ts. Pakistan under Musharraf saw the introduction of few protectionist policies concentrated towards this influential industry. In the policy speech of 2005-2006, the Minister of Commerce announced that all textile exporters that would â€Å"register their products with Pakistani Trade marks in foreign countries for export purposes will be provided subsidy equal to 50% of official fees of such registrations. [7]. Support to this important industry was instituted to help local businesses improve the quality of their product and compete against foreign industries in order to increase the Pakistanis textile industry’s market share. This protectionist policy was put in practice to reassure the industry, which was afraid after the quota restrictions were removed in 2005. It was also introduced to protect the industry from potential job losses and the loss of potential export if the textile industry wouldn’t reinvent itself.The 2005-2006 trade policy speech focused on allev iating costs for Pakistanis businesses in order to make the local industries more competitive on the international scene. Protectionism can also be practiced in the form of tax exemption for local industries. Musharaf’s government in the Federal Budget of 2005-2006 granted tax cuts to prominent industries in the country, including textile industry, sports goods, carpet industry, leather, and surgical instruments. In addition, the imports of necessary materials for these industries are also exempted from duties.Pakistan’s Economy: A Forced Free Trading nation Trade liberalization in Pakistan began in the late 1980s and developed even more during the 1990s under Musharraf’s military government. Today, Pakistan is part of various trade agreements, all leading to economic liberalization. Those include the Pakistan-Malaysia Free Trade Agreement, Pakistan-China Free Trade Agreement, Pakistan-Sri Lanka Free Trade Agreement, Pakistan-Malaysia Early Harvest Program, Paki stan-China Early Harvest Program and Pakistan-Iran agreement.When I briefly presented free trade, I mentioned the â€Å"growth without development† problem that developing countries face nowadays. This is a tendency to grow economically but without promoting social development. It is the result of free trade and is perfectly well illustrated by Pakistan’s situation. The more recent budget of Pakistan is mirrors this tendency, by showing commitment to neo-liberal policies, IMF led-policies. The budget focuses on pleasing the developed countries and on macro-economics rather than on developing the country itself. The budget focuses on the military which accounts for 20% and repaying the debt, 31%.Trade liberalization has been, since Musharraf’s entry in power, another priority within the budget. As the World Bank argues, liberalizing the Pakistanis economy would lead to an increase of 8$ billion if trade barriers were lifted. â€Å"Annual trade between India and Pakistan, the bulk of which is routed through Dubai, is currently estimated at US$1 billion, but could be as great as US$9 billion if barriers are lifted. †[8] In 1999, the Asian Development Bank granted a 300$ million loan to support the Government's Trade, Export Promotion and Industry (TEPI) Program.This program was approved by the ADB, the World Bank and the IMF because it was based on liberalization of trade in Pakistan. TEPI is based on the elimination of nontariff barriers and on the increased access for exporters to the Pakistani market. This program was basically created to end import substitution policies and promote exports by giving as many advantages to local industries as to foreign companies. This program focuses on the privatization of industries and meets all criteria stated by the World Bank concerning quotas, subsidies, and customs.This facilitates foreign investors and promotes economic growth, proven by the fact that â€Å"After more than three decades of near stagnation in per-capita incomes during 1950–80, South Asia showed signs of growth beginning in the 1980s that accelerated in the 1990s and beyond. †[9] Pakistan’s economy used to be based on import substitution and was very little diversified. Taking into consideration those obstacles to trade, the Pakistani ministry of Commerce instituted a program based on diversification of exports and market opening for an increased access to facilitate trade.Pakistani economy has continuously followed WTO required adjustment of liberalization in order to remove trade barriers and obstacles to import. Following the WTO rhetoric, the government argues in favor of opening the market because in order to increase its exports, the country has to encourage imports as well as stated in the trade policy speech of 2005-2006: â€Å"It must be realized that no country has been able to enhance its exports significantly without liberalizing its import regime. †[10] Following this path, exports did increase consistently as well as imports which reached $20. 23 billion at the end of last year according to that same Trade Policy Speech. The irony that we face after having analyzed the economic situation of both countries is that the now-developed countries benefited during their development from an active state that helped them build their industries and protect. As the 1995 OECD Report showed, developed countries achieved growth starting in the 1950s under very protectionist states. â€Å"The unprecedented growth in per capita income in several developed countries during the period 1950-1973, was also achieved under activist states.When they followed the ‘bad' policies of establishing full welfare states with stricter financial market regulations, corporatist wage bargaining institutions, investment co-ordination and in some cases nationalized industries, even the now developed countries saw an exponential increase in their own growth. †[11] However, countries that wish to develop nowadays are required not only to practice free trade but not to use protectionism policies. This is unfair in the sense that they have to develop in an environment that doesn’t promote or help their growth.Developing countries would benefit and even need higher tariffs and trade barriers in order to protect their industry from the more and more competitive and aggressive trading environment. This current tendency is referred to as â€Å"kicking away the ladder†. Core countries act the way they do to ensure their domination over developing nations and keep the poor countries in a vicious circle, as they remain dependant on export of primary and raw materials, not being able to move up the trade ladder. This harms developing countries that struggle in this free trade world economy.In addition, imposing free trade on developing nations actually illustrates the focus of the WTO on short-term benefits and forgetting about the import ance of long-term goals such as deepening the industrialization of the periphery countries. The imposed policies of the WTO prevent the developing countries of using protectionist policies to help their industries develop. Several experiences have already proven that the pressures to liberalize countries’ economy can do more harm than good to new economies.Nonetheless, the WTO continues to force developing countries to open their market and reduce their trade barriers. Liberalization and free trade, although they have great outcomes for developed countries, also lead to greater inequality between the core and the periphery. â€Å"According to one estimate, the Uruguay Round’s combined liberalization increased global economic welfare by $75 billion, of which almost $70 billion went to developed countries, $5 billion to Newly Industrialized Economies (NIEs; Korea, Singapore and Taiwan), and none to developing countries taken together. [12]. Even with such numbers, devel oping countries are still forced to join the free trade movement and the WTO and developed countries continue to promote the benefits of free trading. Today, while the IMF and the WTO force developing countries around the world to practice free trade by reducing trade barriers, Pakistan included, the USA keeps on to implementing protectionist policies in order to save industries in danger or suffering from temporary discomfort.This leads to a greater gap between the productivity of developed and developing countries. The factor that is important to note here is that today’s developed countries once protected their industries behind protectionist policies, but are now promoting free trade in countries that are trying, just like they did, to succeed economically. The developed countries of today reached their economic prosperity through protectionism economic policies, and then started practicing free trade.This irony now rules international trade. It is clear that there is a p roblem concerning trade between countries in the sense that there is an inequality in the terms of trade imposed on developed countries and developing countries. Free trade can only lead to prosperity if all countries benefit from equal treatment. Even then however free trade can lead to economic prosperity but won’t necessarily lead to social development, which is what developing countries need the most.

Sunday, January 5, 2020

Common Latin Words Found in Genealogical Records

Latin terms are often encountered by genealogists in early church records, as well as in many legal documents. You can learn to interpret the Latin language you encounter with by applying an understanding of keywords  and phrases. Common genealogy terms, including record types, events, dates, and relationships are listed here, along with Latin words with similar meanings (i.e., words commonly used to indicate marriage, including marry, marriage, wedding, wedlock and unite). Latin Basics Latin is the mother language for many modern European languages, including English, French, Spanish and Italian. Therefore, Latin will be found used in the earlier records of most European countries, as well as in Roman Catholic records around the world. Latin Language Essentials The most important thing to look for in Latin words is the root, as it will give you the basic meaning of the word. The same Latin word may be found with multiple endings, depending on the way the word is used in the sentence. Different endings will be used if a word is masculine, feminine or neuter, as well as to indicate singular or plural forms of a word. The endings of Latin words can also vary depending on the grammatical usage of the words, with specific endings used to indicate a word used as the subject of the sentence, as a possessive, as the object of a verb, or used with a preposition. Common Latin Words Found in Genealogy Documents Record TypesBaptismal Register - matricula baptizatorum, liberCensus - censusChurch Records - parish matrica (parish registers)Death Register - certificato di morteMarriage Register - matrica (marriage register), bannorum (register of marriage banns), liberMilitary - militaris, bellicus Family EventsBaptism / Christening - baptismi, baptizatus, renatus, plutus, lautus, purgatus, ablutus, lustratioBirth - nati, natus, genitus, natales, ortus, oriundusBurial - sepulti, sepultus, humatus, humatioDeath - mortuus, defunctus, obitus, denatus, decessus, peritus, mors, mortis, obiit, decessitDivorce - divortiumMarriage - matrimonium, copulatio, copulati, conjuncti, nupti, sponsati, ligati, maritiMarriage (banns) - banni, proclamationes, denuntiationes RelationshipsAncestor - antecessor, patres (forefathers)Aunt - amita (paternal aunt); matertera, matris soror (maternal aunt)Brother - frater, frates gemelli (twin brothers)Brother-in-law - affinis, sororiusChild - ifans, filius (son of), filia (daughter of), puer, prolesCousin - sobrinus, generDaughter - filia, puella; filia innupta (unwed daughter); unigena (only begotten daughter)Descendant - proles, successioFather - pater (father), pater ignoratus (unknown father), novercus (stepfather)Grandchild - nepos ex fil, nepos (grandson); neptis (granddaughter)Grandfather - avus, pater patris (paternal grandfather)Grandmother - avia, socrus magna (maternal grandmother)Great-grandchild - pronepos (great grandson); proneptis (great granddaughter)Great-grandfather - proavus, abavus (2nd great grandfather), atavus (3rd great grandfather)Great-grandmother - proavia, proava, abavia (2nd great grandmother)Husband - uxor (spouse), maritus, sponsus, conjus, coniux, ligatus, virMother - materNiece /Nephew - amitini, filius fratris/sororis (nephew), filia fratris/sororis (niece)Orphan, Foundling - orbus, orbaParents - parentes, genitoresRelatives - propinqui (relatives); agnati, agnatus (paternal relatives); cognati, cognatus (maternal relatives); affines, affinitas (related by marriage, in-laws)Sister - soror, germana, glos (husbands sister)Sister-in-law - glorisSon - filius, natusSon-in-law - generUncle - avunculus (paternal uncle), patruus (maternal uncle)Wife - vxor/uxor (spouse), marita, conjux, sponsa, mulier, femina, consorsWidow - vidua, relictaWidower - viduas, relictus DatesDay - dies, dieMonth - mensis, mensesYear - annus, anno; often abbreviated Ao, AE or aEMorning - maneNight - nocte, vespere (evening)January - JanuariusFebruary - FebruariusMarch - MartiusApril - AprilisMay - MaiusJune - Junius, IuniusJuly - Julius, Iulius, QuinctilisAugust - AugustusSeptember - September, Septembris, 7ber, VIIberOctober - October, Octobris, 8ber, VIIIberNovember - November, Novembris, 9ber, IXberDecember - December, Decembris, 10ber, Xber Other Common Latin Genealogical TermsAnd others - et alii (et. al)Anno Domini (A.D.) - in the year of our LordArchive - archiviaCatholic church - ecclesia catholicaCemetery (graveyard) - cimiterium, coemeteriumGenealogy - genealogiaIndex - indiceHousehold - familiaName, given - nomen, dictus (named), vulgo vocatus (alias)Name, surname (family name) - cognomen, agnomen (also nickname)Name, maiden - look for from or of to indicate maiden namenata (born), ex (from), de (of)Obit - (he or she) diedObit sine prole (o.s.p.) - (he or she) died without offspringParish - parochia, pariochialisParish priest - parochusTestes - witnessesTown - urbeVillage - vico, pagusVidelicet - namelyWill/Testament - testamentum

Friday, December 27, 2019

Child Labor Essay example - 1876 Words

Child labor is considered as a form of child abuse, it being the exploitation of a child’s rights and freedoms. Therefore, child labour is when underage children are employed, this happens because a child labourer is paid less than an adult labourer. Consequently employers have more children working for them because they spend less paying the children. â€Å"Child labor usually means work that is done by children under the age of 15 (14 in some developing countries) that restricts or damages a childs physical, emotional, social and/or spiritual growth.†1 Child labour is not something that just recently evolved. As a matter of fact, child labour dates back to the 1780s and the 1840s, where child labour was predominant worldwide. In 1788, it†¦show more content†¦Although there are efforts to put an end to child labour in the world of today, they does not seem to be enough. This is because even though there is a decrease in the number of children that experience child labour, the change is not significant. The level of child labour continues to increase. Presumably, in the societies where child labour is the way of life, only few individuals master the courage to speak against it. Unfortunately, their voices are unheard. For instance, in India there are efforts to lessen the number of child labourers, but culture always gets in the way. This results in children working under very poor conditions that pose a danger to their health on short-term and long-term scale. However, in Canada the law states that: â€Å"Section 72 imposes a statutory duty on every person to report certain suspicions are based, to a children’s aid society.†2 â€Å"†¦ a professional has a legal obligation to immediately report suspected child abuse.†3 Usually, there is a reason behind everything that occurs in the world. For instance, the purpose of going to school is to educate ourselves so that we can have a bright future ahead of us. The main cause of child labour is poverty, which is heavily inclined by culture which varies with different societies. In India, culture is the way of life. Closely related to customs, culture this merely provides guidelines to the people within a society on how to conduct their daily lives. 2 Zuker, Marvin A., Randolph C.Show MoreRelatedThe Nature Of Child Labor1626 Words   |  7 Pagesthat â€Å"Globally there are 168 million child laborers, over half of which, 85 million, are in hazardous work conditions† (ILO). Child labor is not a new phenomenon by any means; it has been going on for years and has become a social issue. This paper aims to portray the nature of child labor in India. It looks at the definition of child labor, the prevalence, and factors that lead children to work. Definition Often time people assume that the meaning of child labor is clear-cut. However, there is littleRead MoreChild Labor1885 Words   |  8 Pagesâ€Å"Child labor† By Elie Bou Chaaya ENL 110 Section â€Å"D† Miss Zeina Fayyad 18, January, 2008 Outline: Thesis statement: Child labor nowadays is considered to be a social injustice due to its harmful effects on the personal and psychological life of the child where the kinds of work offered to the child increases the amount of these effects regarding the solutions. I. Harmful personal and physical effects of child labor A. Low pay B. Very long work hours C. Forbids childrenRead MoreThe Dilemma Of Childhood And Child Labor837 Words   |  4 PagesChildren in Need The dilemma of childhood and child labor are constantly being argued in overseas and domestic sociological literature. Anthropologists and Sociologists through the time have observed the history and the impact of social institutions on child labor. Professionals researching in the field of sociology of economics and labor by examining the incentive and value orientations of children and teenagers in the labor force, their principles and working conditions, and their outlook towardsRead MoreThe Issue Of Child Labor1196 Words   |  5 PagesThe issue of child labor has drawn significant attention since early 1990s as many labor union and special interest groups advocate banning import of goods produced by the child labor in developing countries and the international consensus in the form of Convention on the Right of the Child (CRC) which is widely ratified in 1989 by countries (Boyden, Ling and Myers, 1998). However, concern regarding child labor is not new and can be dated back to industrial revolution, especially late eighteenthRead MoreChild Labor And The United States2768 Words   |  12 Pages When one hears the term â€Å"Child Labor†, an image of children making low quality clothing in some dingy third world sweatshop inevitably comes to mind. While this imagery is unfortunately founded in fact, the third world is not the only area complicit with this heinous practice. Truthfully, we, as a nation are also guilty of propagating this heinous practice. For over a century, this nation’s youth were subjugated to exploitation and abuse at the hands of captains of industry in the hopes of extractingRead MoreChild Labor Industrialization Essay1537 Words   |  7 Pagesthat they should be protected. However, those people believed in a child s capacity to change the world in the future. While people in the past saw children as a way to change the world while they were children. In the late seventeenth century, industrialization arose in Englan d ushering in a new era of industry in our world. More industry means more workers, including children. With the rise of industrialization in a nation, child laborers are viciously abused due to their niche roles in productionRead MoreThe Effects Of Child Slavery And Child Labor On Chocolate Plantation1617 Words   |  7 PagesChild slavery and child labor on chocolate plantations is one of the world’s greatest concerns at the moment. Chocolate plantations are specifically mentioned because chocolate is such a large industry and many kids, particularly in tropical African countries, are affected by child labor. In Cà ´te d’Ivoire alone, around 15,000 children are slaves working on chocolate, or cacao, plantations. (american.edu) This problem is concerning because not only is it unethical, but child labor and, thereforeRead MoreChild Labor766 Words   |  4 PagesThe History of Child Labor In AmericaTopic: The History Of Child LaborQuestion: In what ways was child l abor cruel to children?Thesis: Child labor in America has been very cruel and unfair to children as their jobs were not paid a decent amount of money, were working under terrible conditions, and they led to diseases. Starting in about the 1700s, hand labor was replaced by power driven machines to make jobs easier.1 The industrial revolution had begun, and families needed a job and money to be ableRead MoreChinas High Dependence On Child Labor1677 Words   |  7 PagesChild labor is a commonplace in China. Most of the children in China, families work income is dependent on their family’s survival. Child labor is a major issue throughout the global economy, especially in developing countries like China. Although, China has anti-child labor laws, many children in China are forced to work against their will. China is the home of many poor families and some of these families force their children to work because of their struggle with poverty and their lack of incomeRead MoreTakin g a Look at Child Labor1957 Words   |  8 PagesThe term ‘child labor is used for employment below a certain age, which is considered illegal by law and customs. Children are the greatest gift to humanity and Childhood is an important and impressionable stage of human development as it holds the potential to the future development of any society. A young child has yet to develop a substantial set of life experiences to allow for mature choices and decisions. Children depend on the support of adults to get them through life to ensure an adequate

Thursday, December 19, 2019

How Writing Is An Amalgamation Of Different Conventions...

Writing is an amalgamation of different conventions stuck together in an organized manner in order to convey a point. All papers that are written must have clear theses, a clear, consistent organization, proper tone and style, as well as supporting details and evidence. In addition to overarching ideas like these, papers must include small scale conventions such as conciseness in sentences and ideas, strong topic sentences that relate to the thesis, coherence and readability, and proper wording. These conventions are seen in my writing throughout the semester, however the effectiveness and the proper use of these could be called into question. Two specific examples of my essays, the personal narrative, and the argumentative essay, supporting details and evidence, consistent organization, topic sentences and theses, and the coherence, along with conciseness and clarity, are all major points. However, where the personal narrative excelled in the organization, support and evidence, vivid details, and style, it struggled with topic sentences and coherence, including some word choice issues. On top of this and in contrast, my argumentative essay failed in the aspects of clarity and organization, strong topic sentences and supported details with discussion, as well as redundancies and loss of the main point, while having a success of strong background information, a clear and arguable position and a large amount of arguable evidence. First looking at the argumentative essay, itShow MoreRelatedBhopal Gas Disaster84210 Words   |  337 PagesMIC leaked from the UCC unit in Bhopal. Pioneer /New Delhi 13/04/06 Parents of Bhopal victims protest in capital Parents o f children suffering from physical disability as a result of carbide contamination, after the Bhopal gas tragedy, came together in the capital on Saturday demanding immediate steps from the government to guarantee better health for Bhopal’s children. More than 70 children with birth deformities have been identified from among the communities who have been exposed to carbide